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The world has cut the number of children without an education in half. This progress must extend to the over Ending extreme poverty needs innovative ideas, good governance and sustainable financing. Funding global development needs inspiration from every part of Well-fed people create stable communities, perform better in school and take advantage of the opportunities to end extreme poverty. Over a billion people suffer A healthy planet takes care of its people. Healthy people take care of the planet.

Protecting the earth promotes the The world needs active global citizens who are engaged in the world, knowledgeable about its diversity and passionate about change. Welcome back! Sign in to start taking action. Sign up Sign in with Facebook or. Rerequest with Facebook. This account has been deactivated. About Us. Take Action Rewards Festival Impact. Learn more. While citizenship has varied considerably throughout history, and within societies over time, there are some common elements but they vary considerably as well.

As a bond, citizenship extends beyond basic kinship ties to unite people of different genetic backgrounds. It usually signifies membership in a political body. It is often based on, or was a result of, some form of military service or expectation of future service. It usually involves some form of political participation, but this can vary from token acts to active service in government. Citizenship is a status in society. It is an ideal state as well. It generally describes a person with legal rights within a given political order. It almost always has an element of exclusion, meaning that some people are not citizens, and that this distinction can sometimes be very important, or not important, depending on a particular society.

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Citizenship as a concept is generally hard to isolate intellectually and compare with related political notions, since it relates to many other aspects of society such as the family , military service , the individual, freedom , religion , ideas of right and wrong , ethnicity , and patterns for how a person should behave in society.

Modern citizenship has often been looked at as two competing underlying ideas: [43]. Scholars suggest that the concept of citizenship contains many unresolved issues, sometimes called tensions, existing within the relation, that continue to reflect uncertainty about what citizenship is supposed to mean. Some intergovernmental organizations have extended the concept and terminology associated with citizenship to the international level, [45] where it is applied to the totality of the citizens of their constituent countries combined.

Citizenship at this level is a secondary concept, with rights deriving from national citizenship. The Maastricht Treaty introduced the concept of citizenship of the European Union. Article 17 1 of the Treaty on European Union [46] stated that:. Citizenship of the Union is hereby established.

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Every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union. Citizenship of the Union shall be additional to and not replace national citizenship.

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An agreement known as the amended EC Treaty [47] established certain minimal rights for European Union citizens. Article 12 of the amended EC Treaty guaranteed a general right of non-discrimination within the scope of the Treaty. Article 18 provided a limited right to free movement and residence in Member States other than that of which the European Union citizen is a national. Articles and provide certain political rights. Union citizens have also extensive rights to move in order to exercise economic activity in any of the Member States [48] which predate the introduction of Union citizenship.

Citizenship of the Mercosur is granted to eligible citizens of the Southern Common Market member states. It was approved in through the Citizenship Statute and should be fully implemented by the member countries in , when the program will be transformed in an international treaty incorporated into the national legal system of the countries, under the concept of "Mercosur Citizen". The concept of " Commonwealth Citizenship " has been in place ever since the establishment of the Commonwealth of Nations.

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  • As with the EU, one holds Commonwealth citizenship only by being a citizen of a Commonwealth member state. This form of citizenship offers certain privileges within some Commonwealth countries:. Although Ireland was excluded from the Commonwealth in because it declared itself a republic, Ireland is generally treated as if it were still a member. Legislation often specifically provides for equal treatment between Commonwealth countries and Ireland and refers to "Commonwealth countries and Ireland".

    Canada departed from the principle of nationality being defined in terms of allegiance in In the Irish Free State was the first to introduce its own citizenship. However, Irish citizens were still treated as subjects of the Crown , and they are still not regarded as foreign, even though Ireland is not a member of the Commonwealth.

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    The concept of Commonwealth citizenship was introduced in in the British Nationality Act Citizenship most usually relates to membership of the nation state, but the term can also apply at the subnational level. Subnational entities may impose requirements, of residency or otherwise, which permit citizens to participate in the political life of that entity, or to enjoy benefits provided by the government of that entity.

    But in such cases, those eligible are also sometimes seen as "citizens" of the relevant state, province, or region. An example of this is how the fundamental basis of Swiss citizenship is citizenship of an individual commune , from which follows citizenship of a canton and of the Confederation. The United States has a federal system in which a person is a citizen of their specific state of residence, such as New Jersey or California , as well as a citizen of the United States.

    State constitutions may grant certain rights above and beyond what are granted under the United States Constitution and may impose their own obligations including the sovereign right of taxation and military service; each state maintains at least one military force subject to national militia transfer service, the state's national guard, and some states maintain a second military force not subject to nationalization.

    In this vein, citizenship education is taught in schools, as an academic subject in some countries. By the time children reach secondary education there is an emphasis on such unconventional subjects to be included in academic curriculum. While the diagram on citizenship to the right is rather facile and depth-less, it is simplified to explain the general model of citizenship that is taught to many secondary school pupils.

    The idea behind this model within education is to instill in young pupils that their actions i.

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    It is taught in the Republic of Ireland as an exam subject for the Junior Certificate. As well as teaching knowledge about democracy , parliament, government, the justice system, human rights and the UK's relations with the wider world, students participate in active citizenship, often involving a social action or social enterprise in their local community.

    There are two kinds of criticism of citizenship education in schools. Firstly, some philosophers of education argue that most governments and mainstream policies stimulate and advocate questionable approaches of citizenship education. These approaches aim to develop specific dispositions in students, dispositions conducive to political participation and solidarity. But there are radically different views on the nature of good citizenship and education should involve and develop autonomy and open-mindedness.

    Therefore, it requires a more critical approach than is possible when political participation and solidarity are conceived of as goals of education. They suggest that schools are fundamentally undemocratic institutions, and that such a setting cannot instill in children the commitment and belief in democratic values that is necessary for citizenship education to have a proper impact.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about being a member of a country. For other uses, see Citizen disambiguation. Denotes the link between a person and a state or an association of states. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Nationality law. Main article: History of citizenship. Main article: Polis. Pocock , [19]. Further information: Civic engagement. See also: Global citizenship.

    Main article: Citizenship of the European Union.

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    • Main article: Citizenship of the Mercosur. Main article: Citizenship education subject. Encyclopedia of the City.


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