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What do you enjoy most about writing? Telling stories. Who is your biggest support when it comes to writing? The cat likes sitting on the sofa in my office when I write. Do you have a critique partner or writing group?

Other than the cat, of course! I do have a few friends who help but they usually just end up checking my grammar. Do you write more than you read, or read more than you write? Just wow. What advice do you have for new authors just starting out? Or check out Night Vision.

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For more examples, in the late 19th century, Toni Nelson argued that some daydreams with grandiose fantasies are self-gratifying attempts at "wish fulfillment". Still in the s, some educational psychologists warned parents not to let their children daydream, for fear that the children may be sucked into " neurosis and even psychosis ". While the cost of daydreaming is more thoroughly discussed, the associated benefit is understudied. It's hard to know and record people's private thoughts such as personal goals and dreams, so whether daydreaming supports these thoughts is difficult to discuss.

In recent studies, Immordino et al. They argued that mind is not idle during daydreaming though it's at rest when not attentively engaging in external tasks. Rather, during this process, people indulge themselves in and reflect on fantasies, memories, future goals and psychological selves while still being able to control enough attention to keep easy tasks going and monitor the external environment.

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Thus, the potential benefits are the skills of internal reflection developed in daydreaming to connect emotional implication of daily life experience with personal meaning building process. Despite the deleterious impact of daydreaming on aptitude tests which most educational institutions put heavy emphasis on, Immrdino et al. Research shows that children quipped with theses skills have higher academic ability and are socioemotionally better off.

Also, when the external environment demands overly high attention from children, it's reasonable to believe these useful skills are underdeveloped. Since daydreaming is disruptive in external tasks and its potential benefits are quite private and subtle, it's worth discussing the reason why daydreaming exists and occupies a large amount of people's waking time.

Mooneyham and Schooler summarized five potential functions daydreaming serves: future thinking, creative thinking, attentional cycling, dishabituation and relief from boredom. Future thinking, also known as autobiographical thinking, serves as a way to speculate and anticipate future events.


Though it's costly for current external activities performances, the benefit will be paid off later since future thinking allows better plan and preparation of the future goals. Actually people are more likely to have future-focused daydreams than present-focused and past-focused ones. Creative thinking is another function of daydreaming associated with increased creativity. When tackling unsolved problems, the most productive incubation period s in terms of creative solutions are those in undemanding conditions rather than attention-demanding conditions.

Attentional cycling is an adaptive function of daydreaming in that it helps to keep people's behaviors relatively optimal when there are multiple target problems at the same time. When people have many goals, daydreaming provides an opportunity for people to switch among different streams of information and thoughts. Thus, this ability allows people to choose appropriate behaviors to deal with multiple goals situations. Dishabituation is beneficial in the situation when the internal response to the external stimulus decreases as the external stimulus repeats during learning process.

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One research identified this effect in learning and showed that learning is more effective with distributed practices rather than massive practices. Relief from boredom is an obvious and adaptive function of daydreaming. When people are doing boring tasks, daydreaming allows their thoughts to detach from current external tasks to relieve boredom. At the same time, this temporary detachment will not stop external activities completely when these activities are necessary.

Also, daydreaming can make the time doing boring tasks go faster in people's perception. Freudian psychology interpreted daydreaming as expression of the repressed instincts similarly to those revealing themselves in nighttime dreams.

Daydreams of science: the benzene Ouroboros and the Clapham omnibus - Dream Gates

Like nighttime dreams, daydreams, also, are an example of wish-fulfilment based on infantile experiences , and are allowed to surface because of relaxed censorship. He pointed out that, in contrast to nighttime dreams, which are often confusing and incoherent, there seems to be a process of "secondary revision" in fantasies that makes them more lucid, like daydreaming.

The state of daydreaming is a kind of liminal state between waking with the ability to think rationally and logically and sleeping. They stand in much the same relation to the childhood memories from which they are derived as do some of the Baroque palaces of Rome to the ancient ruins whose pavements and columns have provided the material for the more recent structures.

In the late s, cognitive psychologists Jerome L.

By James Thomson

Army researchers developed a web-based tool that tells users when and how much caffeine they should consume to feel most alert during Curled up or splayed out like a starfish? You might be surprised at how the way you lie down during sleep impacts the quality of Sleep Why You Remember — or Forget — Your Dreams Dreaming has stumped philosophers, psychologists, and sleep medicine experts for decades.

Why do we dream?