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Recommend this journal. Perspectives on Politics. Who would you like to send this to? Meanwhile, Kerry was accused by the Swift Vets and POWs for Truth , who averred that "phony war crimes charges, his exaggerated claims about his own service in Vietnam, and his deliberate misrepresentation of the nature and effectiveness of Swift boat operations compels us to step forward.

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Navy , and the disposition of his discharge. In the beginning of September, the successful Republican National Convention along with the allegations by Kerry's former mates gave Bush his first comfortable margin since Kerry had won the nomination.

A post-convention Gallup poll showed the President leading the Senator by 14 points. Three presidential debates and one vice presidential debate were organized by the Commission on Presidential Debates , and held in the autumn of As expected, these debates set the agenda for the final leg of the political contest. Badnarik was attempting to serve papers to the Commission on Presidential Debates.

On October 29, four days before the election, excerpts of a video of Osama bin Laden addressing the American people were broadcast on al Jazeera. In his remarks, bin Laden mentions the September 11, attacks and taunted Bush over his response to them. In the days following the video's release, Bush's lead over Kerry increased by several points. James Harris replaced Calero on certain other states' ballots. The following table records the official vote tallies for each state as reported by the official Federal Election Commission report.

The column labeled "Margin" shows Bush's margin of victory over Kerry the margin is negative for states and districts won by Kerry. Although Guam has no votes in the Electoral College, they have held a straw poll for their presidential preferences since In , the results were Bush 21, In both states, two electoral votes are awarded to the winner of the statewide race and one electoral vote is awarded to the winner of each congressional district.

The following table records the official presidential vote tallies for Maine and Nebraska's congressional districts.

The Race to 270

Red font color denotes those won by Republican President George W. Bush; blue denotes states won by Democrat John Kerry. Because of a request by Ralph Nader, New Hampshire held a recount. Kerry obtained 4,, votes on the Democratic ticket and , votes on the Working Families ticket. Nader obtained 84, votes on the Independence ticket, and 15, votes on the Peace and Justice ticket. Note also: Official Federal Election Commission Report , with the latest, most final, and complete vote totals available. Source: FEC [44]. One elector in Minnesota cast a ballot for president with the name of "John Ewards" [ sic ] written on it.

The remaining nine electors cast ballots for John Kerry. All ten electors in the state cast ballots for John Edwards for vice president John Edwards's name was spelled correctly on all ballots for vice president.

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Electoral balloting in Minnesota was performed by secret ballot, and none of the electors admitted to casting the Edwards vote for president, so it may never be known who the faithless elector was. It is not even known whether the vote for Edwards was deliberate or unintentional; the Republican Secretary of State and several of the Democratic electors have expressed the opinion that this was an accident. New York's initial electoral vote certificate indicated that all of its 31 electoral votes for president were cast for "John L.

Kerry of Massachusetts" instead of John F. Kerry, who won the popular vote in the state. With the completion of the census, Congressional reapportionment took place, moving some representative districts from the slowest growing states to the fastest growing. As a result, several states had a different number of electors in the U.

Electoral College in than in , since the number of electors allotted to each state is equal to the sum of the number of Senators and Representatives from that state. The following table shows the change in electors from the election. Red states represent those won by Bush ; and blue states, those won by both Gore and Kerry. All states except Nebraska and Maine use a winner-take-all allocation of electors.

Each of these states was won by the same party in that had won it in ; thus, George W. Bush received a net gain of seven electoral votes due to reapportionment while the Democrats lost the same amount. Some older party-affiliation maps use the opposite color-coding for historical reasons. Source: CNN exit poll 13, surveyed [53]. During the campaign and as the results came in on the night of the election there was much focus on Ohio , Pennsylvania , and Florida.

These three swing states were seen as evenly divided, and with each casting 20 electoral votes or more, they had the power to decide the election. As the final results came in, Kerry took Pennsylvania and then Bush took Florida, focusing all attention on Ohio. The morning after the election, the major candidates were neck and neck.

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It was clear that the result in Ohio, along with two other states who had still not declared New Mexico and Iowa , would decide the winner. Bush had established a lead of around , votes but the Democrats pointed to provisional ballots that had yet to be counted, initially reported to number as high as , The result of an electoral tie would cause the election to be decided in the House of Representatives with each state casting one vote, regardless of population.

Such a scenario would almost certainly have resulted in a victory for Bush, as Republicans controlled more House delegations. Therefore, the outcome of the election hinged solely on the result in Ohio, regardless of the final totals elsewhere.

The Path to 270 in 2020

In the afternoon of the day after the election, Ohio's Secretary of State, Ken Blackwell , announced that it was statistically impossible for the Democrats to make up enough valid votes in the provisional ballots to win. At the time provisional ballots were reported as numbering , and later estimated to be only , Faced with this announcement, John Kerry conceded defeat.

The upper Midwest bloc of Minnesota , Iowa , and Wisconsin is also notable, casting a sum of 27 electoral votes. The following is list of the states considered swing states in the election by most news organizations and which candidate they eventually went for.

The two major parties chose to focus their advertising on these states:. Presidential popular votes cartogram , in which the sizes of counties have been rescaled according to their population. Change in vote margins at the county level from the election to the election. While Bush improved nationally overall, making his strongest gains in the South, he suffered a loss of support in parts of New England and the Western United States, which swung in Kerry's favor.

After the election, some sources reported indications of possible data irregularities and systematic flaws during the voting process. Although the overall result of the election was not challenged by the Kerry campaign, Green Party presidential candidate David Cobb and Libertarian Party presidential candidate Michael Badnarik obtained a recount in Ohio.

This recount was completed December 28, , although on January 24, , a jury convicted two Ohio elections officials of selecting precincts to recount where they already knew the hand total would match the machine total, thereby avoiding having to perform a full recount. At the official counting of the electoral votes on January 6, a motion was made contesting Ohio's electoral votes.

The Election of 2000 Explained: US History Review

Because the motion was supported by at least one member of both the House of Representatives and the Senate, election law mandated that each house retire to debate and vote on the motion. In the House of Representatives, the motion was supported by 31 Democrats. It was opposed by Republicans, 88 Democrats and one independent. Not voting were 52 Republicans and 80 Democrats. In the Senate, it was supported only by its maker, Senator Barbara Boxer , with 74 Senators opposed and 25 not voting. During the debate, no Senator argued that the outcome of the election should be changed by either court challenge or revote.

Senator Boxer claimed that she had made the motion not to challenge the outcome, but to "shed the light of truth on these irregularities. Kerry would later state that "the widespread irregularities make it impossible to know for certain that the [Ohio] outcome reflected the will of the voters.

The Path to in - Center for American Progress

We know that there was substantial voter suppression, and the machines were not reliable. It should not be a surprise that the Republicans are willing to do things that are unethical to manipulate elections. That's what we suspect has happened. They were conducted in an environment that reflects a long-standing democratic tradition, including institutions governed by the rule of law, free and generally professional media, and a civil society intensively engaged in the election process.

There was exceptional public interest in the two leading presidential candidates and the issues raised by their respective campaigns, as well as in the election process itself.